Karl Marx- a philosopher, journalist, writer, economist, sociologist, historian-but who was the man behind these layers of labels? Behind them stood a dreamer with comparatively different perspective on the world for his time . Marx was born in 1818 in Prussia, his father was successful lawyer and also a Jew, who was find compelled to be baptized due to the anti-Jewish movements and laws in the country. Being well-educated in Benn and Berlin, studing philosophy, history and law, Marx was destined to receive great knowledge of the world and its government. Unfortunately, he was far from satisfied and quite disappointed and devoted to his radical convictions he went on the journalism. As a journalist, he shortly worked as an editor of e Rheinische Zeitung, until the newspaper was banned due to the censorship imposed by the Russian government. Therefore Prussia didnothing, but abided by the decision.
However, during his studies in Berlin, Marx became more and more interesting in philosophy, he was almost part of the so called “Young Hegelians ’’ society, in which he converted himself into passionate supporter of Hegel’s philosophy, but without accepting whole his concepts and making some criticizing remarks on his own. For example, according to Hegel the reality itself is composed by the vision of some Idea, while Marx argued that it is the Man, who is the true subject of the reality. However, despite being eager to achieve something new and impose justice where it was missed, the reality in which Marx lived was a harsh one. In his early years when he lived in London around 1850s, he and his wife experienced depravation of living in poverty. This is an fragment of letter, which he wrote to his friend Friedrich Engels, depicting explicitly clear about the situation –‘My house is a hospital and the crisis is so disrupting that it requires all my attention. My wife is ill, Jennychen is ill and Lenchen has a kind of nervous fever. I couldn’t and can’t call the doctor, because I have no money for the medicine. For ten days I have managed to feed the family on bread and potatoes, but it is doubtful whether I can get hold of any today. How can I deal with all this devilish filth? ‘. Fortunately enough, Engels helped him out to come though those struggles, setting up some king of pension for his friend.
Despite the fact that few people ,if not nobody, doubted the intelligence of Marx, he was a hard nut to crack. Indeed, his personality was not the most pleasant one when it comes down to accepting or acknowledge somebody ‘s opinion. Many people depicted him with an arrogant, stubborn and sarcastic personality without omniscient features. For instance, his Russian rival Mikhail Bakunin said ‘“He called me a sentimental idealist and he was right. I called him vain, treacherous, and morose; and I too was right.”
Nevertheless, in a long term, it do not matter the personality of the person,but his achievement, and Carl Marx did achieve much. His vision of the world laid to the foundation of the new order and new attitude towards the social class struggle. This struggle was one of the main points in the Marxism as a theoretical knowledge and vision. Briefly, Marx was fervent opponent of the capitalism with its ruthless exploitation and unfair treatment towards the classes. The explanation of that exploitation is quite simple –society in which people receive less than they produce is capitalistic one, indeed we could see how this regime is put into practice in many regions around the world, not only in the lest developed countries.
In one of his major works (Das Capital) Capital, Marx described in detail the vagueness of the vision of the capitalism and its true nature. He himself put it extremely clear how the capitalist’s society runs and what future implications brings with its actions. ‘The contradictions inherent in the movement of capitalist society impress themselves upon the practical bourgeois most strikingly in the changes of the periodic cycle, through which modern industry runs, and whose crowning point is the universal crisis.’ Karl Marx , London 1873 Marx had a vision of the world, where the universal class- labour struggle did not existed anymore and the private enterprises were converted into collective ownership. He called ‘socialism’, the one which would wipe out the furious capitalism once and for all. Being quite convince, Marx wrote that the new regime should be born from ashes of the old one as if the mankind needed to preserve its observations in the course of the formation of the new one. For instance, he provided clear explanation how the capitalist society could provide solid grounds and preparation for socialism in the end of ‘Das Capital’ Volume One.
The most distinctive character of the socialism, which made clear demarcation between itself and the capitalism, is the very principle of distribution. (‘. . . a community of free individuals, carrying on their labour with the means of production in common, in which the labour-power of all the different individuals is consciously applied as the combined labour-power of the community.’ ‘Das Capital’). We could easily grasp the importance of the distribution of labour, once we understand its fundamental principle in which the individuals work together in the single body of the society as a whole. The motto of the capitalism is clear ‘everyone for himself ’ while the socialism tries to tighten up everyone in one single grasp. With these ‘grasp’ Marx claimed that the class differences and the coercive force over the people would disappear.
Some people flatly contradict and refuse to accept these ideas , as such concepts are implausible and even impossible to be accomplished. Could it be possible for us to live without being govern by no one, and what are the chances of our survival in such society? In its peak, the communism doctrine ended up like a new dictatorship and Engels was able to predict such an outcome by saying ‘`the government of people will be replaced by the administration of things’ (1884).
However, it is not clear whether someday we will succeed in achieving the most precise and absolute vision of Marx’s classless society. I would prefer to be optimistic, but the universal struggle and exploitation do not give much hope for our utopia.