The oldest calendar in the world
The oldest calendar in the word belongs to the Bulgars , one of the tribes ‘ people who created the country in the east Europe –Bulgaria. The bulgars’ calendar is proclaimed from UNESCO as the most accurate in the world with its almost inconceivable precisions . The scholars are on the opinion that this calendar was created in 2350 BC,but some of them adhere to the opinion that the accurate year might be 5505 BC, which if it is true , should reveal the possibility of the Bulgarian calendar to be a root stock of the Chinese’s calendar.
The calendar was a solar based, in reverse to the Chinese calendar based on the moon, which explains the fact why every new year’s beginning was dated on 22th of December , the day of the winter solstice. This day was not included in the calendar as a part of none of the seasons in it, it was somewhat independent day or zero-day. The rest of the days (364) were distributed into four different Parts (with each part included in itself three mouths). Quite interesting is the fact that due to that allocation, every new season used to start on Sunday- the first day of the Bulgars’ week. Moreover, the calendar was inflicted by the Jupiter revolution around the Sun and it’s cyclic.
Like the whole cycle of one year, which fundamentally was consisted of 12 parts, the Bulgars’ calendar had a similar cycle of 12 years. The first year was the year of the mouse ( the years ran in that order – 1.Mouse ,2.-cow , 3-Ox, 4-tigger/wolf, 5-rabbit,6-dragon,7-snake,8-horse,9- monkey,10-ram,11-rooster, 12-pig). Speaking of the precision of the calendar divided the night in 12 hours as the day, too.
The calendar was used not only as an instrument of measurement, but also as grounds of identity with its structure in which you could see how the beginning and the end were part of the immense eternity. It was a weapon for the Bulgars to measure the history and how different things happened throughout it. The calendar is also an ample evidence of the advance knowledge of the Bulgars in astronomy and mensuration. As a matter of fact, much more information about how the calendar worked could be trace in the name list of the Bulgarians khans, a book of immense importance which indicates how one each ruler reigned.
Referring back to the Chinese’s calendar it’s worth saying that in the Bulgar calendar, the sequence of the elements is water, fire, earth, tree, metal; the sequence in the Chinese is – tree, fire, earth, metal and water. Another oddly interesting difference between the two calendars is that the former had a leap day while the later had (and still has) a leap mouth.